Analgesics (Pain Medications) and Dosages

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Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Sat Apr 30, 2005 6:49 pm


I wanted to put pain meds into a comprehensive list that includes drug doses from three of the better known and used veterinary formularies.

As cited below, the references are:

1. Exotic Animal Formulary (Second Edition, 2001) by Carpenter, Mashima, and Rupiper *(Third Edition now available 2005)

2. Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents, Clinical Medicine and Surgery (First Edition, 1997) by Hilyer and Quesenberry *(Second Edition available)

3. Veterinary Drug Handbook (Fourth Edition, 2002) by Plumb *(Fifth Edition now available 2005)

All drug doses are in mg/kg as is the standard in current veterinary practice and more practical with smaller animals that are commonly weighed in grams.

Routes are given for administration, although veterinary personnel (ideally, your veterinarian) should be consulted for the best route of administration since many drugs have variable dosings and absorption based on how they are administered. Some drugs are best given via certain routes due to their chemical nature and potential irritation at the injection site (esp. flunixin meglumine AKA Banamine). Also not addressed are potential side effects and contraindications. If any animal is currently on medications or being treated for Cushings Disease, diabetes, heart disease, kidney, or liver disease, additional precautions and dosing information may certainly apply.

This is meant to be a reference and guide for all veterinary personnel treating cavies and laypersons to confirm dosages on their pets. It is certainly not meant to replace proper veterinary care or supercede veterinary recommendations.

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Sat Apr 30, 2005 7:07 pm


NSAIDS (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)

**None of these drugs should ever be used with steroidal drugs due to potential side effects, namely GI ulceration. If these are to be used long-term, certain GI protectants may (and should) be considered. Serious liver and kidney problems may potentially result from misuse or abuse of these drugs and should be used with caution in patients who may have these problems.

The drug name may be followed by common trade names, the dosage, route, time, followed by a number 1-3 corresponding to the references above. Some references will list multiple doses and also a few lack how often to give the drugs.

Acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin)
50-100 mg/kg, give PO, q4h, (per reference 1)
87 mg/kg, PO, q4h, (2,3)

Carprofen (Rimadyl)
4 mg/kg, PO/SQ, q24h, (1* dose is extrapolated from Chinchilla dose and anecdotal usage)

Flunixin meglumine (Banamine)
2.5-5 mg/kg, IM/SQ, q12-24h, (1,3)
2.5 mg/kg, IM, q12-24h (2)

Ibuprofen
10 mg/kg, PO, q4h, (1)

Meloxicam (Metacam, Mobic)
1-2 mg/kg, PO/SQ, q24h, MICE/RATS only (1)
0.2 mg/kg, PO, q24h (3 anecdotal, based on other species)

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Sat Apr 30, 2005 7:11 pm


Benzodiazepines

**May be used for appetite stimulation, anti-anxiety, sedation, anti-seizure, muscle relaxation, etc. Not great pain control.

Diazepam (Valium)
0.5-3 mg/kg, IM, (1,3)

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Sat Apr 30, 2005 7:20 pm


Opiates

**May cause sedation, and GI slowing with regular use. Other indications may also be present (e.g. butorphanol has anti-tussive/coughing effects and some anti-emetic/nausea effects).

Buprenorphine (Buprenex)
0.05 mg/kg SQ/IV, q8-12h, (1,2,3)
0.05-0.1 mg/kg, SQ, (2)

Butorphanol (Torbugesic, Torbutrol, Torb)
2 mg/kg, SQ, q2-4h, (1,2)

Morphine sulfate (Morphine) MAY CAUSE NAUSEA
2-5 mg/kg, SQ/IM, q4h, (1,2)
10 mg/kg, SQ/IM, q4h, (2)

Oxymorphone
0.2-0.5 mg/kg, SQ/IM, q6-12h, (1,2,3)

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Sat Apr 30, 2005 7:30 pm


Glucocorticoids (a class of Steroids)

**Should be used with caution. Very powerful anti-inflammatory medications, but overusage/improper usage can cause other medical conditions such as Cushing's Disease, diabetes, etc. In general, the dosages are started higher and tapered off slowly during a certain time period. They are sometimes very useful for animals with certain cancers, very severe skin problems (itchy skin), and some traumatic musculoskeletal conditions. Excessive thirst/urination, and increased appetite are common side effects. Muscle wasting/atrophy is seen at some doses and during long-term use. Dexamethasone is a common emergency and shock drug, but those doses are not mentioned here.

As mentioned above: DO NOT USE THESE DRUGS CONCURRENTLY WITH NSAID DRUGS. Most vets recommend at least 12-24 hours in between dosings if the choice has been made to switch from steroids to NSAIDS or vice-versa.

Dexamethasone
0.5-2 mg/kg, PO/SQ, q12h, decrease dosage and taper off in 3-14 days, (1)
0.6 mg/kg, IM, (1,3)
0.1-0.6 mg/kg, IM (2)

Prednisone
0.5-2.2 mg/kg, SQ/IM, (1,3)
0.5-2 mg/kg, PO/SQ, (2)

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Mon May 02, 2005 11:53 pm


Correction to the first meloxicam dosage, per the new Carpenter's. 1-2 mg/kg MICE/RATS only. I have yet to find a cavy specific dosage of meloxicam. Hmmm....

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Lynx
RESIST

Post   » Mon May 02, 2005 11:58 pm


Would you like me to replace it with:
1-2 mg/kg, PO/SQ, q24h, MICE/RATS only (1*)

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Tue May 03, 2005 12:07 am


Sure, except you don't need the asterisk thingy.

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Lynx
RESIST

Post   » Tue May 03, 2005 12:20 am


All set then.

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Lynx
RESIST

Post   » Sat May 07, 2005 5:31 pm


I've put your drugs on a page linked to on the medications page:

www.guinealynx.info/analgesics.html

Thanks so much for compiling this list and explaining some of the issues/cautions/effects concerning analgestics. Let me know if you'd like to be credited differently.

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Sat May 07, 2005 10:04 pm


I would like my full name credited as well as the pseudonym.
Thanks, Lynx. It looks nice.

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Lynx
RESIST

Post   » Sat May 07, 2005 10:56 pm


Done. Happy to reword it in anyway you care if you'd like any changes. I tried to distinguish the classifications sufficiently and make things easy to find. You had already laid it out quite nicely.

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Lynx
RESIST

Post   » Wed Nov 15, 2006 9:16 am


Becky has been posting about piroxicam. If you care to add an entry about it, I will be happy to add it to the analgesics page with a note about how it works well for bladder pain. Becky wrote: "It's also an NSAID but has anti-tumor properties, particularly for bladder cancer."

http://www.marvistavet.com/html/body_piroxicam.html

I also wonder if this might be a better choice for any long term pain medication.

My second edition Carpenter's says:

Piroxicam (Feldene, Pfizer) 3.4-20mg/kg PO - mice/analgesia; non-steroidal antinflammatory

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Wed Nov 15, 2006 10:37 pm


Piroxicam is an older drug. While it has some good indications for specific tumors, a lot of places refuse to use it for other indications due to lack of efficacy and potential side-effects.

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Becky

Post   » Wed Nov 15, 2006 10:48 pm


He certainly wouldn't switch to it for all uses--simply for chronic bladder inflammation. He was quite surprised by the metaplasia and her bladder cancer. It's my understanding that piroxicam is particularly effective in preventing bladder tumors.

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Wed Nov 15, 2006 11:21 pm


Transitional Cell Carcinoma. That's the kind of tumor it is particularly effective against.

Josephine
Little Jo Wheek

Post   » Wed Nov 15, 2006 11:22 pm


(Duplicate Post)

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